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Milk fiber

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Milk Fiber

 

Introduction

Foreword

All through the years, experts have been devoted to the researches on improved fibers and at present they have succeeded in the development of the globally advanced milk protein fiber, a milestone in the international textile industry. Up to now, this kind of fiber was only produced in Japan. 

The emergence of milk protein fiber updates the traditional definition of animal protein fiber. Being the optimal combination of nature and hi-tech, it is more accommodated to the needs of people’s modern lifestyle. Milk fiber yarn

Milk protein fiber is dewatered and skimmed milk which is manufactured into the protein spinning fluid suitable for wet spinning process by means of new bio-engineering technique. Milk protein fiber has passed Oeko-Tex Standard 100 green certification for the international ecological textiles.

Milk protein fiber is healthy for skin, comfortable, with bright colors due to good dye ability, etc. The milk protein fiber can be spun purely or spun with cashmere, silk, spun silk, cotton, wool, ramie and other fibers to weave fabrics with the features of milk protein fiber. It can also be used to create top-grade underwear, shirts, T shirts, loungewear, etc. to satisfy people’s pursuit of comfortable, healthy, superior and fashionable garments.

The milk protein fiber is a fresh product as a superior green, healthy and comfortable fiber, which will certainly become popular goods in the market as new favorite of the textile trade.

 


Properties

Good moisture, absorption and conduction:

The fiber base body does not have regular channels, which makes the milk fiber have as fine moisture absorption as natural fiber and better moisture conduction than synthetic fibers - milk fiber is both comfortable and permeable.

Milk fiber - longitudal view under the microscopeMilk fiber - cross-sectional view of the fiber

Vertical picture of fiber                 Horizontal picture of fiber

Main technical indexes of milk protein fiber

No

Item name

Index

1

Fiber tenacity (dtex)

0.8-3

2

Breaking tenacity (cN/dtex)

2.5-3.5

3

Breaking elongation rate (%)

25-35

4

Modulus (cN/dtex)

60-80

5

Standard moisture regain(%)

5.5

6

Specific resistance

1.5×104

7

Static friction coefficient

0.187

Dynamic friction coefficient

0.214

8

Color fastness to washing

4-5 grade

Fastness to crocking

4-5 grade

Fastness to perspiration

4-5 grade

Color fastness to light 4 grade

9

Pilling resistance

3 grade

10

Content of formal dehyde

0

 

milk drop - black and whitemilkfiber drop color

 

Functional comparison of milk protein fiber fabrics

1). Permeability

Knit fabric

Milk protein fiber

Polypropylene fiber

Polyester

Polyamide

Acrylic

Silk

Permeability

1.78

0.64

0.775

0.645

0.98

1.215

 

2). Wet conduction

Knit fabric

Milk protein fiber

Polypropylene fiber

Polyester

Polyamide

Acrylic

Silk

10minutes wicking rate

3.78

3.10

4.11

0

2.06

0.85

Wetting area (cm2)

8.170

15.54

13.9

0

4.6

1.04

Wetting volume (cm3)

0.430

0.653

0.695

0

0.298

0.058

 

3). Heat retention

Fabric

Thermal resistance (clo)

Heat transfer coefficient (kal/m.h.)

Heat retention rate(%)

Milk protein fiber knit fabric

0.2491

26.08

28.5

Acrylic knit fabric

0.1985

33.33

24.02

Cotton knit fabric

0.2639

25.98

29.71

Wool knit fabric

0.3341

19.3

36.26

 

4). Antistatic property

Fiber

Milk protein fiber

Polyester (deoiled)

Polyamide (deoiled)

Acrylic

Silk

Mass specific resistance (lg pm) (Relative humidity is 65%)

9.1

14

14

9.12

9.8

 

5). Friction coefficient

Knit fabric

Milk protein fiber

Cotton

Silk

Friction coefficient

0.214

0.298

0.332

 

6). Bending elastic modulus

Knit fabric

Milk protein fiber

Cotton

Silk

Bending elastic modulus

0.33

3.65

1.47

 

7). Drapability

Knit fabric

Milk protein fiber

Cotton

Silk

Drape coefficient (%)

8

16

10

 

 

Milk protein fiber can be dyed under the normal temperature, and other characteristics are good.

Sample Name:

Milk fabric

Sample Quantity:

30*30cm

Sample description

red

Environmental condition:

Temperature:20 ± 2 degr C

Humidity :65 ± 3% RH

Ref. Documents For the test

GB/T 8427-1998 GB/T 4802.3-1997 GB/T 3920-1997
GB/T 3921-1997 GB/T 3922-1995FZ/T 01057-1999

Test conclusion

Fiber content

Milk60%/wool40%

Anti-light color fastness

+4

 Anti-friction

3

3

Anti-washing

4-5

Anti-sweat (alkali)

4-5

Anti-sweat (acid)

4-5

 Tested by National Inspection and Testing Center for Fiber Products Quality, the shell fabric is washing and perspiration resistant, the color fastness to light reaches grade 4-5 and the pilling resistance goes up to third grade.

 

 


Applications

The milk protein fiber moistens skin and it is healthy and bacteriostatic - it is the perfect material to produce underwear. The important ingredients of milk protein fiber are milk casein proteins, which can nourish and lubricate the skin. The milk protein contains the natural humectant factor, which can capture moisture and this will maintain the skin’s moisture - it makes the skin tender and smooth and reduce wrinkles – peoples’ dream of taking milk baths can be realized.

  • T-Shirts
  • Underwear
  • Ladies outerwear
  • Sportswear
  • Sweaters

Milk protein fiber reduced the cost of cashmere products. At present, the whole industrial process from fiber spinning, weaving, printing and dyeing to ready-made garments has been combined, milk yarn with different specifications has been developed, and milk underwear, milk cashmere sweaters, T-shirts and so on have already appeared on the market...

 

Grades
  • fibers
  • tow/tops
  • spun yarns

 

Shirting made of milk fiber
Processability

Main process of milk protein fiber

Milk into fiber

To make milk protein fiber, milk is first dewatered and skimmed, then by means of new bio-engineering technique, the protein spinning fluid suitable for a wet spinning process is manufactured, then finally the new high-grade textile fiber is made. It combines the advantages of natural fiber and synthetic fiber - the protein fiber is a kind of fresh fiber with healthy function.

 Milk fiber production process

The milk protein fiber contains eighteen amino-acids, which is beneficial to human’s health and has the functions of nourishing and taking care of skin.

 Kinds and content of amino-acid in milk protein fiber

Kinds of amino-acid

Actual data

Kinds of amino-acid

Actual data

Aspartic acid

2.039

Methionine

0.7587

Threonine

0.9918

Isoleucine

1.101

Serine

1.429

Leucine

2.493

Glutamic acid

5.549

Tyrosine

1.572

Pro.

2.529

Phe.

1.331

Glycocoll

0.5259

Lysine

2.289

Alanine

0.9037

Histidine

0.8602

Cystine

0.0815

Arginine

0.9246

Val.

1.71

Tryptophan

0.1831

 Tested by SGS-CSTC Standards Technical Services Co. Ltd Shanghai Branch , the content of amino acid is 30.34%.

Technical infos on how to work milk fibers can be obtained from us.

Milvet technical infos 

 

Background information

The wet spinning technology, a unique spinning solvent is used, micro- zinc ions are is embedded in the fiber, after drying and after treatment, zinc oxide is produced, therefore it is bacteriostatic and durable.

Item

Test result

Golden yellow staphylococcus
(ATCC NO.6538)
Restrain >3.86(99.9986)
Sterilization > 1.96(98.9011)
colon bacillus
(ATCC NO.8099)
Restrain >5.17(99.9993)
Sterilization > 2.03(99.0741)

white Beads germ
(ATCC NO.8099)

Restrain >3.84(99.9855)
Sterilization >1.88(98.6667)

Tested by China National Textiles Quality Supervision Testing Center, the bacterial value of golden yellow staphylococcus is greater than 99.9986, the bacterial value of colon bacillus is greater than 99.9993 and the bacterial value of white Beads germ is greater than 99.9855.

 

Property comparison between milk protein fiber and other textile fiber

Property

Milk protein fiber

Cotton

Silk

Wool

Length (mm)

38

25-39

-----

58-100

Fineness (dtex)

1.52

1.2-2.0

1.0-2.8

6-9

*Dry tensile strength (CN/dtex)

2.8

1.9-3.1

3.8-4.0

2.6-3.5

*Dry breaking elongation rate (%)

25-35

7-10

11-16

14-25

Wet tensile strength (CN/dtex)

2.4

3.2

2.1-2.8

0.8

Wet breaking elongation rate (%)

28.8

13

27-33

50

Friction coefficient (static)

0.187

 

0.52

0.24

Friction coefficient (dynamic)

0.214

 

0.26

0.384

Logarithm of mass specific resistance (Wg/ cm2)

9.1

6.8

9.8

8.4

*Initial modulus (CN/dtex)

60-80

60-82

60-80

44-88

Moisture regain (%)

5-8

7-8

8-9

15-17

Specific weight (g/cm3)

1.22

1.50-1.54

1.46-1.52

1.34-1.38

* The intensity of fiber breakage and mould are moderate, it is great to extend, the spinning and weaving performance is good.

 

 

Some historic background information

Casein [milk] protein

Casein dates back many centuries when it was used as a binder for paints -- paint with casein applied to 14th and 15th century churches still appears bright and unfaded.

Proteins are obtained from skim milk, evaporated milk and condensed milk. There are about three pounds of casein in every 100 pounds of milk.

When cut to staple-length fiber casein has many properties of wool. Fibers are white, fluffy, springy and have a pleasant odor. When blended with other fibers casein added a soft draping quality and resiliency to fabrics. Fiber was blended with wool for creating felt and with spun rayon, wool, mohair and cotton for attractive woven and knitted fabrics in a variety of weaves, textures and prints.

Even though casein fiber lacks certain desirable qualities of wool it was a way to replace wool at a lower cost. When mixed with rayon and wool, casein helped in the conservation effort during WWII as a wool substitute.

Casein fibers cannot be distinguished from wool fibers by chemical or burning tests, only by microscope. Because chemical composition is so similar, casein burns like wool with odor of burning hair, has no surface scales like wool but is smooth and round when viewed under a microscope, is damaged readily by alkalis and mildews easily.

Though caseins can be laundered with care the same as wool, they loose strength when wet and must be handled gently. They cannot be kept damp for any length of time due to quick mildewing. Three successful brand names were Aralac in America and Lanital and Merinova in Italy.

Caseïn vat for ground casein
Ground casein is poured into trap door, treated with chemicals and heated in huge vats to form a solution which is forced through spinnerets; washed, dried, cut into staples and baled to yarn-making plants for spinning and blending. - America's Fabrics
 
Textured drapery made from soft casein yarns combined with other fibers. - America's Fabrics
Feather hat with casein drapery

ribbon hat with casein fibers
Montgomery Ward's S/S 1942 catalog featured classic felt styles of 94% new wool and 6% casein fiber. Colors choices were black, flag red, navy, dusty rose, dusty blue and beige. $2.48 and $3.98 respectively. 
Lanital was the first successful protein fiber from milk casein. Antonio Feretti was granted a patent for this fiber from the Italian government in 1935. It was named Lanital [lana = wool +ital = Italy], and manufactured by Snia Viscosa which called the fabric a fancy rayon. It lasted into the early 40s and superceded by Merinova which was used to blend with rabbit hair in the production of felts. Merinova was discontinued in the late 1960s.

Fibers of both fabrics were very similar to wool and could be dyed by the same processes, and like wool they were easily damaged by alkalis. Both had a resilient wooly feel but were not as strong and firm nor as elastic as wool. Moths would not attack and shrinkage was not as much as wool but fibers mildewed easily when damp, an inherent characteristic of protein fibers as noted earlier.

 

Cross sectional view of Lanital casein fiber

Cross sectional view of Lanital under a microscope. - Kansas State Ag Bulletin 300
Aralac  

A patent was granted in 1937 to the United States Department of Agriculture for making a casein fiber by a somewhat different method than Lanital. Aralac was developed by the American Research Associates, a scientific research division of the National Dairy Products Corp.

A useable fiber was developed and ready for the market in 1940, just in time to serve as a wool substitute during WWII. Its name was derived from ARA = American Research Associates + lac = Latin for milk.

Aralac was blended with rabbit fur in making felt hats and with wool, mohair, rayon and cotton in varying proportions for fabrics and garments. Although clothing in this fiber was available as late as 1947, the impact of man-made fibers following the war caused the demise of this fiber in 1948 as it could not compete with the low price of new synthetics. Plus when damp, this fabric smelled like sour milk, causing many consumer complaints, a quite common, familiar ailment within the casein family.

 

R-53

appeared around 1941; R for research and 53 indicating it was the 53rd fiber tested in a search for a fiber which was suitable to manufacture felt hats. This fiber was finer than Aralac and was used to blend with rabbit fur in making felt for hats. Little information is available. It was listed by this name as late as 1953 but seems to have disappeared. Possibly the fiber might have been renamed or absorbed by Merinova or failed to survive as a competitor.

 

Caslen was a trademark of Plastic Products, a division of Rubberset. It was developed as a curled and resilient replacement for horsehair in upholstery. It appeared on the market in the late 1940s and according to glossary listings, was off market by the early 60s. Another brand from Great Britain was Fibrolane, discontinued in 1965.

 

 

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